Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Slavery Slavery and Human Decency Essay Example For Students

Slavery Slavery and Human Decency Essay Discrimination is very old in its origins. From the earliest periods of human existence, groups developed prejudices toward others and then discriminated against those whom they regarded as different or inferior. Many attempts were taken to maintain or increase power, prestige, or even wealth; groups found it easy to invent or accept the idea that others were somehow inferior to them and thus not deserving of equal treatment. Among the many differences that could be used as a basis for discrimination, people quickly discovered that physical appearance was the easiest to identify. It required no subtle analysis, no careful contemplation, but only a superficial glance at those visual features that would later be used to identify race. The shape of ones nose, color of ones hair, or even the color of ones skin describes the universal nature of what we now call racial consciousness. Slavery is a perfect example. Racial animosity grew in both the North and South, and in many instances led to physical violence. The era of slavery should have been called the era of inhumanity. Slavery was inhumane, barbaric, and ultimately disgusting. In 1800 the population of the United States included 893,602 slaves, of which only 36,505 were in northern states (Phillips 18). Slaves were treated as if they were a piece of meat. The defined characteristics of slaves are as follows, their labor or services are obtained through force; their physical beings are regarded as the property of another person, their master; they are entirely subject to their masters or owners will (Phillips 17). Slave life according to historians has never been and will never be classified as a so-called idyllic experience. There was little in the way of recreation and other forms of entertainment to pass the time. It must be remembered that, slaves had no time they could call their own. Rarely did slaves get any free time at all, but when they did it was spent recuperating from long sixteen-hour workdays. Most slaves were not well taken care of. Many slaves went for days without eating, and in turn this caused their work pace to slow. According to Collier, plantation slaves worked sixteen-hour days in the summer, and were only given three pounds of bacon or pork and roughly twelve quarts of cornmeal a week (26). Many slave owners or overseers would peruse the plantations and lash out at any given slave particularly because they simply werent working hard enough. Although historians believe that not all slave owners were cruel, but they have no doubt that some slave owners frequently lashed out to their slaves to instill the idea of obedience and loyalty (Collier 28). The evidence clearly shows that slavery was wrong, and I believe the slaveholders knew it. Guilt is an inevitable effect of slavery. The simple fact remains that men were enslaving men. Regardless of how much inferior a slaveholder may perceive his slaves, it is obvious that his property looks similar, had similar needs, and has similar feelings. There is the necessary comparison of situations; the slaveholder is free, the slaves are in bondage certainly a position that the slaveholder would find most disagreeable. So there is no doubt that any slaveholder with any measure of humanity within him would feel guilt. According to Websters dictionary guilt is defined as a feeling of responsibility for having done something wrong (311). In other words, guilt creates such inner disturbance that a guilty man will vary from normal behavior. To illustrate this theory one would evaluate these two scenarios. First, a slaveholder that commits detrimental actions to himself or his family shows the slaveholder is in mental distress. Secondly, that the actions practiced simply illustrate the status of the slaveholder. With such overwhelming evidence, it is absolutely safe to say those southern slaveholders as a whole felt guilt because of their status as slave owners. .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe , .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe .postImageUrl , .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe , .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe:hover , .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe:visited , .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe:active { border:0!important; } .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe:active , .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u8f4275691f73e5d59acd6e2fed300fbe:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Thomas Malthuss overpopulation theory Essay I believe the reason that southern slave owners felt guilty is because they were human and had true human emotions. Slave owners who did not feel any guilt regarding slavery, felt slavery was ok, not because propaganda or society influenced them, but because they were immoral to begin with. I

Monday, December 2, 2019

Paragraphs and essays free essay sample

Paragraphs are the building blocks of papers. A paragraph is a group of sentences that develops one main idea. A paragraph may stand by itself as a complete piece of writing, or it may be a section of a longer piece of writing, such as an essay. No single rule can prescribe how long a paragraph should be the unity and coherence of ideas among sentences is what constitutes a paragraph, but a paragraph that is too short can make a reader think that some basic information is missing. On the other hand, a paragraph that is too long will likely make a reader lose interest. An effective paragraph must be long enough to develop the main idea the writer is expressing, usually six or seven sentences in length, but no more than ten or twelve sentences. While it is true that newspapers or magazines take liberties with the paragraph form and often have paragraphs as short as a single sentence, a well-developed piece of writing will seldom present a single sentence as a paragraph (unless the sentence is a piece of dialogue). We will write a custom essay sample on Paragraphs and essays or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Basic paragraph structure A paragraph consists of several sentences that are grouped together. This group of sentences together discusses one main subject. Paragraphs have three basic principal parts. These three parts are the topic sentence, body sentences (supporting sentences), and the concluding sentence. A topic sentence is a sentence whose main idea or claim controls the rest of the paragraph. It consists of a topic and controlling idea, which is the point the writer makes about the title. The topic sentence is usually the first sentence of a paragraph, but not necessarily. It may come, for example, after a transition sentence; it may even come at the end of a paragraph. Topic sentences are not the only way to organize a paragraph, and not all paragraphs need a topic sentence. For example, paragraphs that describe, narrate, or detail the steps in an experiment do not usually need topic sentences. Topic sentences are useful, however, in paragraphs that analyze and argue. Topic sentences are particularly useful for writers who have difficulty developing focused, unified paragraphs (i. e. , writers who tend to sprawl). Topic sentences help these writers develop a main idea or claim for their paragraphs, and, perhaps most importantly, they help these writers stay focused and keep paragraphs manageable. Topic sentences are also useful to readers because they guide them through sometimes complex argum 5eents. Many well-known, experienced writers effectively use topic sentences to bridge between paragraphs. Topic sentences often begin with transitional clauses referring to the previous paragraph and the other part of the sentence shapes and controls what follows. Because of this topic sentence is sometimes called controlling sentence. Supporting sentences as their name indicates support or explain the idea expressed in the topic sentence. A supporting detail is a piece of evidence used by a writer to make the controlling idea of the topic sentence convincing and interesting to the reader. A piece of evidence might be a descriptive image, an example taken from history or personal experience, a reason, a fact (such as a statistic), a quotation from an expert, or an anecdote used to illustrate a point. Of course, paragraphs in English often have more than two supporting ideas. Whenever possible, you should include enough details in your paragraphs to help your reader understand exactly what you are writing about. The Concluding Sentence In formal paragraphs you will sometimes see a sentence at the end of the paragraph which summarizes the information that has been presented. This is the concluding sentence. You can think of a concluding sentence as a sort of topic sentence in reverse. You can understand concluding sentences with this example. Consider a hamburger that you can buy at a fast-food restaurant. A hamburger has a top bun (a kind of bread), meat, cheese, lettuce, and other elements in the middle of the hamburger, and a bottom bun. Note how the top bun and the bottom bun are very similar. The top bun, in a way, is like a topic sentence, and the bottom bun is like the concluding sentence. Both buns hold the meat, onions, and so on. Similarly, the topic sentence and concluding sentence hold the supporting sentences in the paragraph. Not all academic paragraphs contain concluding sentences, especially if the paragraph is very short. However, if your paragraph is very long, it is a good idea to use a concluding sentence. Characteristics of a paragraph Every paragraph in a paper should be Unified—all of the sentences in a single paragraph should be related to a single controlling idea (often expressed in the topic sentence of the paragraph). Clearly related to the thesis—the sentences should all refer to the central idea, or thesis, of the paper (Rosen and Behrens 119). Coherent—the sentences should be arranged in a logical manner and should follow a definite plan for development (Rosen and Behrens 119). Well-developed—Every idea discussed in the paragraph should be adequately explained and supported through evidence and details that work together to explain the paragraph’s controlling idea (Rosen and Behrens 119). 5-step process to paragraph development Step1. Decide on a controlling idea and create a topic sentence Paragraph development begins with the formulation of the controlling idea. This idea directs the paragraph’s development. Often, the controlling idea of a paragraph will appear in the form of a topic sentence. In some cases, you may need more than one sentence to express a paragraph’s controlling idea. Step 2. Explain the controlling idea Paragraph development continues with an expression of the rationale or the explanation that the writer gives for how the reader should interpret the information presented in the idea statement or topic sentence of the paragraph. The writer explains his/her thinking about the main topic, idea, or focus of the paragraph. Step 3. Give an example (or multiple examples) Paragraph development progresses with the expression of some type of support or evidence for the idea and the explanation that came before it. The example serves as a sign or representation of the relationship established in the idea and explanation portions of the paragraph. Here are two examples that we could use to illustrate the double meanings in slave spirituals: Step4. Explain the example(s) The next movement in paragraph development is an explanation of each example and its relevance to the topic sentence and rationale that were stated at the beginning of the paragraph. This explanation shows readers why you chose to use this/or these particular examples as evidence to support the major claim, or focus, in your paragraph. Continue the pattern of giving examples and explaining them until all points/examples that the writer deems necessary have been made and explained. NONE of your examples should be left unexplained. You might be able to explain the relationship between the example and the topic sentence in the same sentence which introduced the example. More often, however, you will need to explain that relationship in a separate sentence. Look at these explanations for the two examples in the slave spirituals paragraph: Step 5. Complete the paragraph’s idea or transition into the next paragraph The final movement in paragraph development involves tying up the loose ends of the paragraph and reminding the reader of the relevance of the information in this paragraph to the main or controlling idea of the paper. At this point, you can remind your reader about the relevance of the information that you just discussed in the paragraph. You might feel more comfortable, however, simply transitioning your reader to the next development in the next paragraph. An essay is a piece of writing that develops a topic in five or more paragraphs, including an introductory paragraph that states the thesis, three or more supporting paragraphs that develop the topic, and a concluding paragraph. KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS IN THE COMPLETE COLLEGE ESSAY 1. The introductory paragraph is the first paragraph of the essay. Its purpose is to lead the reader to the thesis statement in an inviting and interesting way that will encourage the reader to continue reading. A thesis statement is usually found at the end of the introductory paragraph. Support paragraphs (sometimes called body paragraphs) provide evidence that the thesis is valid. An acceptable college essay must have at least three well-developed support paragraphs. (You have studied these types of support paragraphs in Part 4 of this book. ) Each support paragraph should flow logically to the next support paragraph. This is often accomplished by the careful use of transitional expressions. 3. The concluding paragraph is the final paragraph of the essay. Its purpose is to give the reader a sense that the essay has come to a satisfying conclusion. By this point, the reader should have the feeling that everything the essay needed to say has been said. Brief Overview of the 10 Essay Writing Steps Below are brief summaries of each of the ten steps to writing an essay. 1. Defining the topic: Student writing suffers when the chosen topic is too general. A good writer must recognize when the topic needs to be narrowed or qualified so that the material will fit the length of an essay and also fit the writer’s knowledge and experience. 2. Research: Begin the essay writing process by researching your topic, making yourself an expert. Utilize the internet, the academic databases, and the library. Take notes and immerse yourself in the words of great thinkers. 3. Analysis: Now that you have a good knowledge base, start analyzing the arguments of the essays youre reading. Clearly define the claims, write out the reasons, the evidence. Look for weaknesses of logic, and also strengths. Learning how to write an essay begins by learning how to analyze essays written by others. 4. Brainstorming: Your essay will require insight of your own, genuine essay-writing brilliance. Ask yourself a dozen questions and answer them. Meditate with a pen in your hand. Take walks and think and think until you come up with original insights to write about. 5. Thesis: Pick your best idea and pin it down in a clear assertion that you can write your entire essay around. Your thesis is your main point, summed up in a concise sentence that lets the reader know where youre going, and why. Its practically impossible to write a good essay without a clear thesis. 6. Outline: Sketch out your essay before straightway writing it out. Use one-line sentences to describe paragraphs, and bullet points to describe what each paragraph will contain. Play with the essays order. Map out the structure of your argument, and make sure each paragraph is unified. 7. Introduction: Now sit down and write the essay. The introduction should grab the readers attention, set up the issue, and lead in to your thesis. Your intro is merely a buildup of the issue, a stage of bringing your reader into the essays argument. (Note: The title and first paragraph are probably the most important elements in your essay. This is an essay-writing point that doesnt always sink in within the context of the classroom. In the first paragraph you either hook the readers interest or lose it. Of course your teacher, whos getting paid to teach you how to write an essay, will read the essay youve written regardless, but in the real world, readers make up their minds about whether or not to read your essay by glancing at the title alone. ) 7. Paragraphs: Each individual paragraph should be focused on a single idea that supports your thesis. Begin paragraphs with topic sentences, support assertions with evidence, and expound your ideas in the clearest, most sensible way you can. Speak to your reader as if he or she were sitting in front of you. In other words, instead of writing the essay, try talking the essay. 8. Conclusion: Gracefully exit your essay by making a quick wrap-up sentence, and then end on some memorable thought, perhaps a quotation, or an interesting twist of logic, or some call to action. Is there something you want the reader to walk away and do? Let him or her know exactly what. Format your essay according to the correct guidelines for citation. All borrowed ideas and quotations should be correctly cited in the body of your text, followed up with a Works Cited (references) page listing the details of your sources. 10. Language: Youre not done writing your essay until youve polished your language by correcting the grammar, making sentences flow, incoporating rhythm, emphasis, adjusting the formality, giving it a level-headed tone, and making other intuitive edits. Proofread until it reads just how you want it to sound. Writing an essay can be tedious, but you dont want to bungle the hours of conceptual work youve put into writing your essay by leaving a few slippy misppallings and pourly wordedd phrazies. The relationship between a paragraph and an essay is symbiotic; you cant write an essay without using paragraphs, and four or more consecutive paragraphs about the same subject matter become an essay. Both paragraphs and essays have a distinct beginning, middle and end. A paragraph is a mini-essay. Both have a limited subject with (a) precise opinion(s) In writing either a paragraph or an essay writers do three things: 1. Writers tell the readers what they are going to tell them 2. Writers tell this to them and illustrate/prove it, giving details to explain or develop the support 3. Writers then tell readers what they have just told them. 1. Both paragraphs and essays begin with a topic sentence, or a thesis statement that explains to the reader what the paragraph or essay is about. Paragraphs and essays both require supporting details that elaborate on the statements made in the topic sentence or thesis statement. Both paragraphs and essays must end with a conclusion. Â  Both paragraph and essay fulfill those four characteristics these are unity, coherence, cohesion and completeness. A thesis statement for an essay is longer and more detailed than the topic sentence at the beginning of a paragraph. In a paragraph, each subsequent sentence builds upon the point made in the topic sentence; in an essay, the first sentence in each paragraph discusses points made in the thesis statement. In a paragraph, the sentences following the topic sentence are called supporting details. In an essay, the paragraphs following the thesis statement are called supporting paragraphs. Each supporting paragraph has its own supporting details. Paragraphs must end with a concluding sentence that states the basic point of the paragraph. It should not rephrase or reiterate the topic sentence. Essays end with a conclusion paragraph that summarizes the content of the essay and reiterates the thesis statement with different phrasing. The conclusion paragraph usually revisits the points introduced in the supporting paragraphs to prove to the reader that, from the writers point of view, the thesis statement was correct. 2. Paragraphs and essays differ in their length. Paragraphs are typically between five and six sentences long. Theyre composed of a topic sentence and four or five supporting details. Essays contain at least five paragraphs; theyre composed of an introductory paragraph (which includes the thesis statement), at least three supporting paragraphs and a conclusion paragraph. 3. Besides having transitional phrases essays have transitional paragraphs.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The First Men to Climb Mount Everest

The First Men to Climb Mount Everest After years of dreaming about it and seven weeks of climbing, New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Nepalese Tenzing Norgay reached the top of Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world, at 11:30 a.m. on May 29, 1953. They were the first people to ever reach the summit of Mount Everest. Earlier Attempts to Climb Mt. Everest Mount Everest had long been considered unclimbable by some and the ultimate climbing challenge by others. Soaring in height to 29,035 feet (8,850 m), the famous mountain is located in the Himalayas, along the border of Nepal and Tibet, China. Before Hillary and Tenzing successfully reached the summit, two other expeditions got close. Most famous of these was the 1924 climb of George Leigh Mallory and Andrew Sandy Irvine. They climbed Mount Everest at a time when the aid of compressed air was still new and controversial. The pair of climbers was last seen still going strong at the Second Step (about 28,140 - 28,300 ft). Many people still wonder if Mallory and Irvine might have been the first to make it to the top of Mount Everest. However, since the two men did not make it back down the mountain alive, perhaps well never know for sure. The Dangers of Climbing the Highest Mountain in the World Mallory and Irvine certainly were not the last to die upon the mountain. Climbing Mount Everest is extremely dangerous. Besides the freezing weather (which puts climbers at risk for extreme frostbite) and the obvious potential for long falls from cliffs and into deep crevasses, climbers of Mount Everest suffer from the effects of the extreme high altitude, often called mountain sickness. The high altitude prevents the human body from getting enough oxygen to the brain, causing hypoxia. Any climber who climbs above 8,000 feet could get mountain sickness and the higher they climb, the more severe the symptoms may become. Most climbers of Mount Everest at least suffer from headaches, cloudiness of thought, lack of sleep, loss of appetite, and fatigue. And some, if not acclimated correctly, could show the more acute signs of altitude sickness, which includes dementia, trouble walking, lack of physical coordination, delusions, and coma. To prevent the acute symptoms of altitude sickness, climbers of Mount Everest spend a lot of their time slowly acclimating their bodies to the increasingly high altitudes. This is why it can take climbers many weeks to climb Mt. Everest. Food and Supplies In addition to humans, not many creatures or plants can live in high altitudes either. For this reason, food sources for climbers of Mt. Everest are relatively nonexistent. So, in preparation for their climb, climbers and their teams must plan, purchase, and then carry all of their food and supplies with them up the mountain. Most teams hire Sherpas to help carry their supplies up the mountain. (The Sherpa are a previously nomadic people who live near Mt. Everest and who have the unusual ability of being able to quickly physically adapt to higher altitudes.) Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay Go Up the Mountain Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay were part of the British Everest Expedition, 1953, led by Colonel John Hunt. Hunt had selected a team of people who were experienced climbers from all around the British Empire. Among the eleven chosen climbers, Edmund Hillary was selected as a climber from New Zealand and Tenzing Norgay, though born a Sherpa, was recruited from his home in India. Also along for the trip was a filmmaker to document their progress and a writer for The Times, both were there in the hopes of documenting a successful climb to the summit. Very importantly, a physiologist rounded out the team. After months of planning and organizing, the expedition began to climb. On their way up, the team established nine camps, some of which are still used by climbers today. Out of all the climbers on the expedition, only four would get a chance to make an attempt to reach the summit. Hunt, the team leader, selected two teams of climbers. The first team consisted of Tom Bourdillon and Charles Evans and the second team consisted of Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay. The first team left on May 26, 1953 to reach the summit of Mt. Everest. Although the two men made it up to about 300 feet shy of the summit, the highest any human had yet reached, they were forced to turn back after bad weather set in as well as a fall and problems with their oxygen tanks. Reaching the Top of Mount Everest At 4 a.m. on May 29, 1953, Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay awoke in camp nine and readied themselves for their climb. Hillary discovered that his boots had frozen and thus spent two hours defrosting them. The two men left camp at 6:30 a.m. During their climb, they came upon one particularly difficult rock face, but Hillary found a way to climb it. (The rock face is now called Hillarys Step.) At 11:30 a.m., Hillary and Tenzing reached the summit of Mount Everest. Hillary reached out to shake Tenzings hand, but Tenzing gave him a hug in return. The two men enjoyed only 15 minutes at the top of the world because of their low air supply. They spent their time taking photographs, taking in the view, placing a food offering (Tenzing), and looking for any sign that the missing climbers from 1924 had been there before them (they didnt find any). When their 15 minutes were up, Hillary and Tenzing began making their way back down the mountain. It is reported that when Hillary saw his friend and co-New Zealand climber George Lowe (also part of the expedition), Hillary said, Well, George, weve knocked the bastard off! News of the successful climb quickly made it around the world. Both Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay became heroes.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

3 Sentences with Punctuation Problems

3 Sentences with Punctuation Problems 3 Sentences with Punctuation Problems 3 Sentences with Punctuation Problems By Mark Nichol Commas serve a vital function as a fundamental organizing tool within sentences, acting as buffers that keep syntactical elements in place and as signals that indicate relationship. Often, however, they are incorrectly located, omitted, or inserted, adversely affecting comprehension. After each of the sentences below, a discussion explains why a comma is misplaced, missing, or extraneous, and a revision demonstrates the correct placement. 1. They are becoming engaged early in the business development or RD stage, and in some cases, evaluated as a potential acquisition targets. The first comma in this sentence is placed as if to separate two independent clauses, but the statement has only one clause, interrupted by a parenthesis, so the first comma must be moved to mark the beginning of the interjection: â€Å"They are becoming engaged early in the business development or RD stage and, in some cases, evaluated as a potential acquisition targets.† 2. Such a project should be treated as a business-transformation opportunity, creating large-scale initiatives that require attention and buy-in throughout the organization and should not be considered just another project. This sentence is punctuated as if everything following opportunity is a subordinate clause, but the clause ends at organization (and is inserted within the sentence as a parenthesis), so a comma must be inserted after it: â€Å"Such a project should be treated as a business-transformation opportunity, creating large-scale initiatives that require attention and buy-in throughout the organization, and should not be considered just another project.† 3. Financial institutions should make certain that such information is used accurately and responsibly, and that privacy, discrimination, and other legal risks are appropriately addressed. Here, the second of two phrases is unnecessarily set off from the first: â€Å"Financial institutions should make certain that such information is used accurately and responsibly and that privacy, discrimination, and other legal risks are appropriately addressed.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Farther vs. FurtherConnotations of 35 Words for Funny PeopleAppropriate vs. Apropos vs. Apt

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Family Business Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Family Business - Research Paper Example Critical Issues Involved Within Family Business In accordance with survey report of KPMG (2009), it has been observed that family businesses mainly deal with such features or aspects that are unique to their business. Therefore, there exist certain issues with regard to the accumulation as well as the preservation of occupational assets along with wealth by implementing and applying various measures. Family business also entails issues such as management, ownership along with governance. Succession planning, growth and progression are also pertinent issues that are being faced by family businesses. Compensation issues related with reimbursing the family members is also a matter of concern as it creates a significant extent of problem within the management of family business. Another prominent issue that depicts rivalry among family members or siblings also creates a hurdle in the growth and the development of the family business (PWC, 2012; CBIA, n.d.; ICFIB, 2009; KPMG, 2009; Mass M utual Financial Group, 2007). In the opinion of the survey report published by ICFIB (2009), it has been assessed that issues with regard to governance is a primary problem of family business. ... e selection of appropriate member for a designated position in the organizational hierarchy is at times not done which results in creating an issue with regard to fairness as well as justice. In the survey report, it has been further revealed that family businesses do not maintain or inculcate written documents concerning employment policies. Communication gap and conflicts within in-laws are issues that have been recognized through the survey in the above article (PWC, 2012; CBIA, n.d.; ICFIB, 2009; KPMG, 2009; Mass Mutual Financial Group, 2007). According to the survey report of Mass Mutual Financial Group (2007), it has been taken into consideration that labor costs, estate taxes and health care costs are certain issues that arise within family business. Furthermore, it has also been ascertained that family businesses mainly rely upon their close associates for assistance and advise which at times creates a major issue in terms of rivalry within family members. In the opinion of P WC (2012), it has been determined that in family businesses there are issues related to taxation as well as accessibility with regard to capital. According to the survey report, it has been revealed that in Finland, key issues that are being faced by family businesses include staff recruitment as well as prevailing market conditions. The reviews and the survey reports depict the current prevailing issues within family business that are affecting the growth and development of the organizations. Family businesses are executed worldwide inculcating common issues within its system (PWC, 2012; CBIA, n.d.; ICFIB, 2009; KPMG, 2009; Mass Mutual Financial Group, 2007). Mitigating Issues for Growth and Development Succession planning is a major issue within family business. In order to resolve such

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Attachment between friend and romantic partner Case Study

Attachment between friend and romantic partner - Case Study Example The study has covered 50 respondents (students) of Bournemouth University age ranges from 18 to 25 with their academic qualifications of bachelor degree for survey. The selected respondents' versions in terms of their relationship status with their friends and romantic partners (now and then) are the findings of the study. The research survey was carried out in the month of '', 2009. On one hand, the study has explored the relationship status in terms of attachment level of students at their different ages with their friends and romantic partners considering their dependency level and competitiveness attitude towards them and on other hand, it has tried to analyse why the attachment style of students will differ as per their age variations with their friends and romantic partners. Through these two explorations, a substantial contribution to identify the behavior of students at different ages with their different relationship (Friends/Partners) status can be supposed to say. According to Bowlby (1973, 1980), experiences with attachment figures generate representational or "working models" that guide behaviour, affect, and perceptions in later relationships. The earliest working models are formed during infancy and early childhood, partly in response to interactions with parents and other significant caregivers (Van IJzendoorn, 1995). During social development, models of different attachment figures coalesce into more generalised, higher-order models of the self and significant others, even though models of central attachment relationships remain intact (Main, Kaplan, & Cassidy, 1985). Throughout childhood and adolescence, working models of new people and new relationships begin to develop based on these earlier models. New models, therefore, are not entirely independent of earlier ones given that earlier models guide how information about new persons and relationships is encoded, processed, interpreted, stored in memory, and eventually acted on (Bowlby, 1973; Collins, Guichard, Ford, & Feeney, 2004; Crittenden, 1985). Effective modulation of negative emotional experiences is fundamentally important to both mental and physical health. This process is associated with an individual's experiences of security within attachment relationships, and that this association is mediated by parasympathetic nervous system functioning. These findings open up a host of provocative questions regarding the basic biopsychology of the attachment system and the multiple ways in which interpersonal experiences with attachment figures become integrated, over time, into psychological, behavioral, and biological patterns of emotion regulation. Future research on these issues is important for integrating the increasingly sophisticated bodies of knowledge on social relationships and physiological functioning that have developed within the social-psychological, developmental, and behavioral medicine traditions. Such integration is critical for elucidating how and why humans' most intimate and important relationships shape bot h mental and p

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Apple Inc. and Wall Street Journal Essay Example for Free

Apple Inc. and Wall Street Journal Essay Apple has set the standard and has built a reputation around the world for creative, consumer-friendly, simple devices that are used around the world. They are marketed in such ways that demand for these gadgets are always in high demand. Apple’s innovations and marketing techniques have changed not only the phones and computers we use but their innovation has challenged people to do business outside of the box. For Apple not only have they gone outside the box, but literally outside of the country for the manufacturing of their products. 10 percent of the Apple IPhone is manufactured in the United States, the other 90 percent of the Apple IPhone is manufactured abroad. (Duhigg Bradsher, 2012). To make an IPhone requires hundreds of different parts and not all of these parts can be found all in one place. The advanced semiconductors of the phone are made in Germany and Taiwan, the memory pieces, display panels and circuitry are all from Korea and Taiwan, chipsets are from Europe and the rare metals are found from Africa and Asia. After the materials have been acquired they are sent to China mainly Foxconn City where they are manufactured. (Duhigg Bradsher, 2012). The unscratchable glass screen was perfected by Apple engineers in Kentucky and sent to Foxconn City where they are assembled.(Duhigg Bradsher, 2012). While 90 percent of the parts needed are found elsewhere the software and the marketing of that software in the phone is all American. (Duhigg Bradsher, 2012). Apple employs 43,000 people in the United States and 20,000 overseas, whereas they contract an additional 700,000 people from everywhere but the United States to engineer, build and assemble their gadgets. (Duhigg Bradsher, 2012). As Apple grew around the world the demand for their products simultaneously increased. Apple realized that their production was also going to have to grow and grow out of the United States to meet their expanded quota. The solution was outsourcing. Outsourcing has become the frequent thing to do in hundreds of industries including electronics. Almost all of the 70 million iPhones, 30 million iPads and 59 million other products Apple sold last year w ere manufactured overseas. (Duhigg Bradsher, 2012). When companies decide to outsource Asia always looks to be the best choice among the rest. The workers who are just barely trained are much cheaper, which keeps profits high when labor the main cost of production is kept to a minimum. In Apple’s case this was not their concern, what made Asia the place where Apple contracted Foxconn is  because of the speed of production and the magnitude of people that are trained and hired to work are unthinkable here in the United States. For the needed 208,700 people to work in assembly lines and over see production it has been estimated to take nine months to find that many qualified engineers in United States to work. In China, it took 15 days. (Duhigg Bradsher, 2012). Apple’s worldwide supply demand manager spoke on the subject and commented â€Å"What U.S. plant can find 3,000 people overnight and convince them to live in dorms?† For Apple to make the switch to Chinese workers from American workers was a critical advan tage in their company. (Duhigg Bradsher, 2012). Foxconn City was informally named a city because of the amount of people that works are equivalent to city. This facility employs 230,000 most of the workers spend six days a week working, and up to 12 hours of their day at that same plant. Many of the workers there are forced to live in company dorms where they make less than $17 day. (Duhigg Bradsher, 2012). However, Foxconn can provide companies, like Apple with the scale of people that are needed for efficient production of their gadgets. Since Foxconn has been successful they have opened dozens more of facilities that assemble an estimated 40 percent of the world’s consumer electronics. (Duhigg Bradsher, 2012). With production exceeding everywhere else in the world the consequence of having unseen high production output is also to have harsh and demanding working conditions for employees. Employees at Foxconn work extreme overtime hours, and live in crowded dorms. The owners of Foxconn and Apple have been criticized for these conditions and that underage workers have helped build these products.(Duhigg Barboza, 2012). They are also criticized for safety concerns of hazardous materials that are not disposed properly that eventually harm uneducated workers. The China Labor Watch (CLW) found â€Å"a variety of dangerous working conditions, as well as unfair calculations of work time, low basic wages that compel acceptance of large amounts of overtime in order to have adequate income on which to live, very high work intensity, and failure to pay for social insurance, work-related injury insurance and other insurance required by law.† (Lubman, 2012). Codes of conduct were set by Apple and the CLW in place to help balance working conditions and employees rights. These policies are frequently inspected but are found to be seriously violated on a daily basis.(Duhigg Barboza, 2012). The criticism and investigations of Foxconn  have led them to improve conditions; they plan on improving conditions by hiring more new workers, eliminating unpaid overtime, improving safety, and to upgrade housing and other amenities. (Gupta Chan, 2012). Foxconn said it was â€Å"going to raise salaries by 16 to 25 percent, and was advertising a basic monthly wage, not including overtime, of 1,800 yuan ($290) in the southern city of Shenzhen, Guangdong province where the monthly minimum wage is 1,500 yuan.† (Duhigg Barboza, 2012). Foxconn also alleged to building new housing where multiple workers do not have to cram into a room, and help their workers enroll in union type of structures. As these promises seem hopeful they have not been yet effective. Chen Yamei, 25, who has works at a Foxconn factory, complained that her salary will drop to just over 2,000 yuan a month ($317) from over 4,000 yuan. (Duhigg Barboza, 2012).Which is the complete opposite of what was promised, and shows that the investigations just highlighted the problems of oversea manufacturing companies that without fixing them. Urbanization normally generates more economically productive work, compared to rural areas. The skills needed to survive in an urban area are different, also getting paid for these skills are an increase to rural pay. ( Areddy, Davis, Page 2012). With more people living in an urban center this naturally causes a demand for new housing and buildings. Therefore, an increase in the urban cities would create more jobs an d better pay for people and this could lead to people less likely to work at companies like Foxconn, and utilize their skills somewhere else with a more competitive pay. The urbanization of China not only will open up more cities and jobs and such, but it will change the way that this generation thinks and works. The new generation of workers is less tolerant of the rigid military management style that was used on their parents and grandparents. ( Mozur, 2012). As jobs grow in China, young workers will pick and choose their jobs. This complicates the situation at Foxconn because the newer generation will challenge the manufacturing company and the government to meet the large expectations that will only continue to grow. The younger workers want to work more independently, employees 24 and under desire jobs where they don’t live paycheck to paycheck and can afford to save money for the future. ( Mozur, 2012). Being independent or an entrepreneur, living in a big city where there are more opportunities, not depending on working at a company like Foxconn where you  are told what to do and where to sleep every day. No I do not think it is proba ble to manufacture IPhones and IPods in the United States. Figuring out space, resources, and labor would cost a fortune even before production. While in China they have warehouses already built to accommodate production, with free samples of products, employees available 24 hours a day and free engineering offered. (Duhigg Bradsher, 2012). As a business executive the smart choice for your company would be to move your supply chain to the most efficient place possible. â€Å"The entire supply chain is in China now,† said another former high-ranking Apple executive. â€Å"You need a thousand rubber gaskets? That’s the factory next door. You need a million screws? That factory is a block away. You need that screw made a little bit different? It will take three hours.† (Duhigg Bradsher, 2012). The production that can be done overseas could not be matched here in the United States in the same amount of time, this is why manufacturing in the United States would not benefit Apple as much as it does in China. I don’t believe that companies have an obligation to support American workers. CEOs want to maximize profits, and continue to be competitive around the world, so the most logical thing to maximize profits is lower costs. Labor is a huge cost. The U.S. is a world leader not because Americans are more intelligent than everyone else on earth, but because we have a free market and a free market inspires people to innovate which help American companies to stay a competitive power around the world. It hurts some people’s jobs but for a short term. Globalization needs to happen to thrive, limiting outsourcing inhibits growth, and jobs cannot be made without growth. Acquire new and better skills or perish. Competition needs to continue for growth in jobs, not an entitlement to a job just because you’re American. References: How the U.S. Lost Out on iPhone Work by Charles Duhigg and Keith Bradsher from The New York Times, January 22, 2012, pp. A1 and A22-A23 ( ONLINE version dated January 21, 2012) â€Å"In China, Human Costs are Built Into an iPad† by Charles Duhigg and David Barboza, The New York Times, January 25, 2012 Apple Contractor Ho Hai Says it Hired Underage Workers by Paul Mozur, The Wall Street Journal, October 16, 2012 (also see version printed on October 17, 2012 Foxconn Factory in China Used 14-Year-Old Workers) Working Conditions: The Persistence of Problems in Chinas Factories by Stanley Lubman, The Wall Street Journal, September 25, 2012 â€Å"Apple, Foxconn set new standard for Chinese workers† by Poorima Gupta and Edwin Chan Reuters, March 30, 2012 â€Å"China Population Balance Tilts Urban† by Jeremy Page and Bob Davis, The Wall Street Journal, January 18, 2012, p A10 New Labor Attitudes Fed Into China Riot by Paul Mazor, The Wall Street Journal, September 26 (or 27), 2012